[Rev. 11/21/2013 9:53:56 AM--2013]

CHAPTER 172 - PROCEEDINGS AFTER COMMITMENT AND BEFORE INDICTMENT

GENERAL PROVISIONS

NRS 172.005†††††††††† Definitions.

NRS 172.015†††††††††† Prosecution of public offenses.

NRS 172.025†††††††††† Prosecution by accusation.

NRS 172.035†††††††††† Accusations, indictments and informations to be found or filed in district court.

FORMATION OF GRAND JURY

NRS 172.045†††††††††† Impaneling grand juries.

NRS 172.047†††††††††† Grand jury impaneled for specific limited purpose.

NRS 172.055†††††††††† Challenges to grand jury and to grand jurors: How made and tried.

NRS 172.065†††††††††† Motion to dismiss presentment or indictment based on objections to grand jurors.

NRS 172.075†††††††††† Officers of grand jury.

NRS 172.085†††††††††† Oath of grand jurors.

NRS 172.095†††††††††† Charges to be given to grand jury by court; district attorney to inform grand jury of specific elements of public offense considered as basis of indictment.

NRS 172.097†††††††††† Supervision of grand jury by impaneling judge; limitations on and review of expenditures; monthly statement by county treasurer.

POWERS AND DUTIES OF GRAND JURY

NRS 172.105†††††††††† Powers.

NRS 172.107†††††††††† Limitations on use of grand jury.

NRS 172.135†††††††††† Evidence receivable before grand jury.

NRS 172.137†††††††††† Use of affidavit before grand jury: When permitted; notice by district attorney; circumstances under which district attorney must produce person who signed affidavit; continuances.

NRS 172.138†††††††††† Use of audiovisual technology to present live testimony before grand jury: When permitted; requirements for taking and preserving testimony; limitations on subsequent use.

NRS 172.139†††††††††† District attorney and grand jury prohibited from questioning attorney regarding matters learned for client or issuing subpoena for work done by attorney for client.

NRS 172.145†††††††††† Defendant entitled to submit statement regarding preliminary hearing which grand jury must receive; grand jury required to hear and district attorney required to submit known evidence which will explain away charge; invitations and issuance of process for witnesses.

NRS 172.155†††††††††† Degree of evidence to warrant indictment; objection.

NRS 172.165†††††††††† Grand juror must declare knowledge as to commission of public offense; investigation.

NRS 172.175†††††††††† Matters into which grand jury shall and may inquire.

NRS 172.185†††††††††† Grand jury entitled to enter jails and examine records.

NRS 172.195†††††††††† Issuance of subpoenas by grand jury; subpoenaed witnesses must be informed of general nature of inquiry.

NRS 172.197†††††††††† Procedure when person subpoenaed to appear before grand jury intends to assert constitutional privilege against self-incrimination.

NRS 172.205†††††††††† Power to engage services of skilled persons.

NRS 172.215†††††††††† Certified court reporter: Appointment; compensation; material required for and prohibited from inclusion in notes.

NRS 172.225†††††††††† Transcripts: Preparation; public record.

NRS 172.235†††††††††† Who may be present when grand jury is in session.

NRS 172.239†††††††††† Legal counsel for certain persons who appear before grand jury.

NRS 172.241†††††††††† Right of certain persons to appear before grand jury; notice of consideration of indictment; withholding of notice.

NRS 172.245†††††††††† Secrecy of proceedings of grand jury; permitted disclosures; penalty.

NRS 172.255†††††††††† Finding and return of presentment or indictment; effect of failure to indict.

NRS 172.259†††††††††† Publication of fact that no indictment was issued by grand jury.

NRS 172.265†††††††††† Names of witnesses inserted or endorsed at foot of indictment.

NRS 172.267†††††††††† Report of grand jury: Scope; purpose; limitations.

NRS 172.269†††††††††† Report of grand jury: Inclusion of recommendations to public officers or agencies; criticism must be constructive; positive statement of no indictable activity required, if applicable.

NRS 172.271†††††††††† Report of grand jury: Preliminary review by court; notification of identified persons; procedure to expunge improper material; filing and distribution.

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

NRS 172.275†††††††††† Discharge of grand jury; discharge or excuse of juror.

NRS 172.285†††††††††† Warrant on presentment.

NRS 172.295†††††††††† Review by person of personís prior testimony before testifying before grand jury again.

NRS 172.305†††††††††† Failure to disclose subject of grand juryís inquiry to defendant not cause for dismissal of subsequent presentment or indictment.

_________

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GENERAL PROVISIONS

††††† NRS 172.005  Definitions.  As used in this chapter, unless the context otherwise requires:

††††† 1.  An indictment is an accusation in writing, presented by a grand jury to a competent court, charging a person with a public offense.

††††† 2.  A presentment is an informal statement in writing, by the grand jury, representing to the court that a public offense has been committed, which is triable within the district, and that there is reasonable ground for believing that a particular person, named or described, has committed it.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1967, 1409)

††††† NRS 172.015  Prosecution of public offenses.  Every public offense must be prosecuted by indictment or information, except:

††††† 1.  Where proceedings are had for the removal of a civil officer.

††††† 2.  Offenses arising in the militia when in actual service in time of war, or which this State may keep, with the consent of Congress, in time of peace.

††††† 3.  Offenses tried in municipal or Justice Courts, which shall be prosecuted by complaint.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1967, 1407; A 1969, 20)

††††† NRS 172.025  Prosecution by accusation.  When proceedings are had for the removal of district, county, municipal or township officers, they may be commenced by accusation, in writing, as provided in chapter 283 of NRS.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1967, 1407)

††††† NRS 172.035  Accusations, indictments and informations to be found or filed in district court.  All accusations, informations and indictments against district, county, municipal and township officers must be found or filed in the district court.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1967, 1408)

FORMATION OF GRAND JURY

††††† NRS 172.045  Impaneling grand juries.  Grand juries shall be impaneled as provided in chapter 6 of NRS.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1967, 1408)

††††† NRS 172.047  Grand jury impaneled for specific limited purpose.  A district judge may impanel a grand jury to inquire into a specific limited matter among those set forth in NRS 172.175. In that case, the judge shall charge the grand jury as to its limited duties and give it such information as the judge deems necessary. A grand jury that is impaneled for a specific limited purpose shall not inquire into matters not related to that purpose. A grand jury impaneled for a specific limited purpose may be discharged after the grand jury completes its investigation and submits its report. If the grand jury has not completed its investigation and submitted its report within 1 year after it was impaneled, it shall, in a closed hearing, show cause to the judge why it should not be discharged. If the judge determines that it is in the public interest for the grand jury to continue its investigation, the grand jury may continue for a period which does not exceed 1 year.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1985, 556)

††††† NRS 172.055  Challenges to grand jury and to grand jurors: How made and tried.  The district attorney or a defendant who has been held to answer in the district court may challenge the array of jurors on the ground that the grand jury was not selected, drawn or summoned in accordance with law, and may challenge an individual juror on the ground that the juror is not legally qualified. Challenges may be oral or in writing and shall be tried by the court.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1967, 1408)

††††† NRS 172.065  Motion to dismiss presentment or indictment based on objections to grand jurors.  A motion to dismiss the presentment or indictment may be based on objections to the array or on the lack of legal qualification of an individual juror, if not previously determined upon challenge. A presentment or indictment shall not be dismissed on the ground that one or more members of the grand jury were not legally qualified if it appears from the record kept pursuant to NRS 172.075 that 12 or more jurors, after deducting the number not legally qualified, concurred in finding the presentment or indictment.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1967, 1408)

††††† NRS 172.075  Officers of grand jury.  The jury shall elect one of its members to be foreman, another to be deputy foreman and a third to be secretary. The foreman shall have power to administer oaths and affirmations and shall sign all presentments and indictments. The secretary shall keep a record of the number of jurors concurring in the finding of every presentment or indictment and shall file the record with the clerk of the court, but the record shall not be made public except on order of the court. During the absence of the foreman, the deputy foreman shall act as foreman, and if both are absent, the jury shall elect a temporary foreman.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1967, 1408)

††††† NRS 172.085  Oath of grand jurors.  The following oath must be administered to the grand jury:

 

†††††† You, as grand jurors, will diligently inquire into, and true presentment make, of all offenses against the State of Nevada committed or triable within this county, (or city, in the case of Carson City) of which you shall have or can obtain legal evidence. You will keep your own counsel, and that of your fellows and the Government, and will not, except when required in the due course of judicial proceedings, disclose the testimony of any witness examined before you, nor anything which you or any other grand juror may have said, nor the manner in which you or any other grand juror may have voted on any matter before you. You will present no person through malice, hatred, or ill will, nor leave any unpresented through fear, favor, or affection, or for any reward, or the promise or hope thereof; but in all your presentments you will present the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, according to the best of your skill and understanding, so help you God.

 

††††† (Added to NRS by 1967, 1408; A 1969, 316)

††††† NRS 172.095  Charges to be given to grand jury by court; district attorney to inform grand jury of specific elements of public offense considered as basis of indictment.

††††† 1.  The grand jury being impaneled and sworn, must be charged by the court. In doing so, the court shall:

††††† (a) Give the grand jurors such information as is required by law and any other information it deems proper regarding their duties and any charges for public offenses returned to the court or likely to come before the grand jury.

††††† (b) Inform the grand jurors of the provisions of NRS 172.245 and the penalties for its violation.

††††† (c) Give each regular and alternate grand juror a copy of the charges.

††††† (d) Inform the grand jurors that the failure of a person to exercise the right to testify as provided in NRS 172.241 must not be considered in their decision of whether or not to return an indictment.

††††† 2.  Before seeking an indictment, or a series of similar indictments, the district attorney shall inform the grand jurors of the specific elements of any public offense which they may consider as the basis of the indictment or indictments.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1967, 1408; A 1985, 554, 1028)

††††† NRS 172.097  Supervision of grand jury by impaneling judge; limitations on and review of expenditures; monthly statement by county treasurer.

††††† 1.  The district judge impaneling a grand jury shall supervise its proceedings.

††††† 2.  The grand jury shall submit an itemized list of its expenditures no less often than every 3 months or a fraction thereof to the judge who impaneled it.

††††† 3.  The grand jury shall not spend money or incur a debt exceeding the amount of money budgeted for its use unless it first obtains the approval of the judge who impaneled it. The judge shall inform the board of county commissioners of any expenditure or indebtedness the judge so approves.

††††† 4.  The county treasurer shall provide to the grand jury a monthly statement of its expenditures for the preceding month and the balance remaining of the money appropriated for its use.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1985, 556)

POWERS AND DUTIES OF GRAND JURY

††††† NRS 172.105  Powers.  The grand jury may inquire into all public offenses triable in the district court or in a Justice Court, committed within the territorial jurisdiction of the district court for which it is impaneled.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1967, 1408)

††††† NRS 172.107  Limitations on use of grand jury.  A district attorney shall not use a grand jury to discover tangible, documentary or testimonial evidence to assist in the prosecution of a defendant who has already been charged with the public offense by indictment or information.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1985, 1028)

††††† NRS 172.135  Evidence receivable before grand jury.

††††† 1.  In the investigation of a charge, for the purpose of either presentment or indictment, the grand jury can receive no other evidence than such as is given by witnesses produced and sworn before them or furnished by legal documentary evidence or by the deposition of witnesses taken as provided in this title, except that the grand jury may receive any of the following:

††††† (a) An affidavit or declaration from an expert witness or other person described in NRS 50.315 in lieu of personal testimony or a deposition.

††††† (b) An affidavit of an owner, possessor or occupant of real or personal property or other person described in NRS 172.137 in lieu of personal testimony or a deposition.

††††† 2.  The grand jury can receive none but legal evidence, and the best evidence in degree, to the exclusion of hearsay or secondary evidence.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1967, 1409; A 1975, 649; 1983, 1917; 1993, 86, 549; 1999, 164)

††††† NRS 172.137  Use of affidavit before grand jury: When permitted; notice by district attorney; circumstances under which district attorney must produce person who signed affidavit; continuances.

††††† 1.  If a witness resides outside this State or more than 100 miles from the place of a grand jury proceeding, the witnessís affidavit may be used at the proceeding if it is necessary for the district attorney to establish as an element of any offense that:

††††† (a) The witness was the owner, possessor or occupant of real or personal property; and

††††† (b) The defendant did not have the permission of the witness to enter, occupy, possess or control the real or personal property of the witness.

††††† 2.  If a financial institution does not maintain any principal or branch office within this State or if a financial institution that maintains a principal or branch office within this State does not maintain any such office within 100 miles of the place of a grand jury proceeding, the affidavit of a custodian of the records of the financial institution or the affidavit of any other qualified person of the financial institution may be used at the proceeding if it is necessary for the district attorney to establish as an element of any offense that:

††††† (a) When a check or draft naming the financial institution as drawee was drawn or passed, the account or purported account upon which the check or draft was drawn did not exist, was closed or held insufficient money, property or credit to pay the check or draft in full upon its presentation; or

††††† (b) When a check or draft naming the financial institution as drawee was presented for payment to the financial institution, the account or purported account upon which the check or draft was drawn did not exist, was closed or held insufficient money, property or credit to pay the check or draft in full.

††††† 3.  If the defendant has been subpoenaed to appear before the grand jury or if the defendant has requested to testify pursuant to NRS 172.241, the district attorney shall provide either written or oral notice to the defendant, within a reasonable time before the scheduled proceeding of the grand jury, that an affidavit described in this section will be used at the proceeding.

††††† 4.  If, at or before the time of the proceeding, the defendant establishes that:

††††† (a) There is a substantial and bona fide dispute as to the facts in an affidavit described in this section; and

††††† (b) It is in the best interests of justice that the person who signed the affidavit be examined or cross-examined,

  the grand jury may request that the district attorney produce the person who signed the affidavit and may continue the proceeding for any time it deems reasonably necessary in order to receive such testimony.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1993, 548; A 1999, 164)

††††† NRS 172.138  Use of audiovisual technology to present live testimony before grand jury: When permitted; requirements for taking and preserving testimony; limitations on subsequent use.

††††† 1.  If a witness resides more than 500 miles from the place of a grand jury proceeding or is unable to attend the grand jury proceeding because of a medical condition, upon the request of the district attorney, the district judge supervising the proceedings of the grand jury may allow a witness to testify before the grand jury through the use of audiovisual technology.

††††† 2.  The district judge supervising the proceedings of the grand jury may allow a witness to testify before the grand jury through the use of audiovisual technology only if the district judge finds that good cause exists to grant the request based upon the specific facts and circumstances of the grand jury proceeding.

††††† 3.  If the district judge supervising the proceedings of the grand jury allows a witness to testify at the grand jury proceeding through the use of audiovisual technology:

††††† (a) The testimony of the witness must be:

†††††††††††† (1) Taken by a certified videographer who is in the physical presence of the witness. The certified videographer shall sign a written declaration, on a form provided by the district judge, which states that the witness does not possess any notes or other materials to assist in the witnessís testimony.

†††††††††††† (2) Recorded and preserved through the use of a videotape or other means of audiovisual recording technology.

†††††††††††† (3) Transcribed by a certified court reporter appointed pursuant to NRS 172.215 in accordance with the provisions of NRS 172.225.

††††† (b) Before giving testimony, the witness must be sworn and must sign a written declaration, on a form provided by the district judge, which acknowledges that the witness understands that he or she is subject to the jurisdiction of the courts of this state and may be subject to criminal prosecution for the commission of any crime in connection with his or her testimony, including, without limitation, perjury, and that the witness consents to such jurisdiction.

††††† (c) The original recorded testimony of the witness must be delivered to the certified court reporter.

††††† (d) The testimony of the witness may not be used by any party upon the trial of the cause or in any proceeding therein in lieu of the direct testimony of the witness, but the court may allow the testimony of the witness to be used for any other lawful purpose.

††††† 4.  Audiovisual technology used pursuant to this section must ensure that the witness may be:

††††† (a) Clearly heard and seen; and

††††† (b) Examined.

††††† 5.  As used in this section, ďaudiovisual technologyĒ includes, without limitation, closed-circuit video and videoconferencing.

††††† (Added to NRS by 2001, 545)

††††† NRS 172.139  District attorney and grand jury prohibited from questioning attorney regarding matters learned for client or issuing subpoena for work done by attorney for client.  During a grand jury proceeding, the district attorney and the grand jurors shall not:

††††† 1.  Question an attorney or an attorneyís employee regarding matters which were learned during a legitimate investigation for a client.

††††† 2.  Issue a subpoena for the production of the private notes or other matters representing work done by the attorney or the attorneyís employee regarding the legal services which the attorney provided for a client.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1985, 1028)

††††† NRS 172.145  Defendant entitled to submit statement regarding preliminary hearing which grand jury must receive; grand jury required to hear and district attorney required to submit known evidence which will explain away charge; invitations and issuance of process for witnesses.

††††† 1.  The grand jury is not bound to hear evidence for the defendant, except that the defendant is entitled to submit a statement which the grand jury must receive providing whether a preliminary hearing was held concerning the matter and, if so, that the evidence presented at the preliminary hearing was considered insufficient to warrant holding the defendant for trial. It is their duty, however, to weigh all evidence submitted to them, and when they have reason to believe that other evidence within their reach will explain away the charge, they shall order that evidence to be produced, and for that purpose may require the district attorney to issue process for the witnesses.

††††† 2.  If the district attorney is aware of any evidence which will explain away the charge, the district attorney shall submit it to the grand jury.

††††† 3.  The grand jury may invite any person, without process, to appear before the grand jury to testify.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1967, 1409; A 1985, 555; 2011, 287)

††††† NRS 172.155  Degree of evidence to warrant indictment; objection.

††††† 1.  The grand jury ought to find an indictment when all the evidence before them, taken together, establishes probable cause to believe that an offense has been committed and that the defendant has committed it.

††††† 2.  The defendant may object to the sufficiency of the evidence to sustain the indictment only by application for a writ of habeas corpus.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1967, 1409; A 1979, 331)

††††† NRS 172.165  Grand juror must declare knowledge as to commission of public offense; investigation.  If a member of the grand jury knows or has reason to believe that a public offense has been committed, which is triable within the jurisdiction of the district court which has impaneled such grand jury, the member must declare such knowledge or belief to the memberís fellow jurors, who shall thereupon investigate the alleged offense.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1967, 1409; A 1969, 6)

††††† NRS 172.175  Matters into which grand jury shall and may inquire.

††††† 1.  Each grand jury that is not impaneled for a specific limited purpose shall inquire into:

††††† (a) The case of every person imprisoned in the jail of the county, on a criminal charge, against whom an indictment has not been found or an information or complaint filed.

††††† (b) The condition and management of any public prison located within the county.

††††† (c) The misconduct in office of public officers of every description within the county which may constitute a violation of a provision of chapter 197 of NRS.

††††† 2.  A grand jury that is not impaneled for another specific limited purpose may inquire into any and all matters affecting the morals, health and general welfare of the inhabitants of the county, or of any administrative division thereof, or of any township, incorporated city, irrigation district or town therein.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1967, 1409; A 1973, 1274; 1985, 556, 701)

††††† NRS 172.185  Grand jury entitled to enter jails and examine records.  The grand jury shall be entitled to free access, at all reasonable times, to all public prisons and to the examination without charge of all public records within its district.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1967, 1409)

††††† NRS 172.195  Issuance of subpoenas by grand jury; subpoenaed witnesses must be informed of general nature of inquiry.

††††† 1.  Except as otherwise provided in NRS 172.139, the grand jury may issue subpoenas, subscribed by the foreman or by the deputy or temporary foreman when acting for the foreman, for witnesses within the State and for the production of books, papers or documents.

††††† 2.  The grand jury shall orally inform any witness so subpoenaed of the general nature of the grand juryís inquiry before the witness testifies. Such a statement must be included in the transcript of the proceedings.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1967, 1409; A 1985, 573, 1029)

††††† NRS 172.197  Procedure when person subpoenaed to appear before grand jury intends to assert constitutional privilege against self-incrimination.

††††† 1.  If a person who has been subpoenaed to appear before a grand jury informs the district attorney that the person intends to refuse to testify and to assert the personís constitutional privilege against self-incrimination, the district attorney shall:

††††† (a) Move for an order of immunity pursuant to NRS 178.572;

††††† (b) Challenge the existence of a valid privilege by filing in any court of record a motion to compel the testimony of the person; or

††††† (c) Withdraw the subpoena.

††††† 2.  All proceedings which are held on a motion filed pursuant to subsection 1 must be closed.

††††† 3.  If the existence of the privilege is challenged, the court shall hear the evidence of both parties and determine whether or not a valid privilege exists and to which matters, if any, it extends.

††††† 4.  The district attorney shall not call a person to testify before a grand jury regarding matters which have been so determined to be within the personís constitutional privilege against self-incrimination.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1985, 554)

††††† NRS 172.205  Power to engage services of skilled persons.  The grand jury shall have the power, with the consent of the board of county commissioners, to engage the services of an attorney other than and in addition to the district attorney, certified or registered public accountants, and such other skilled persons as may be necessary in the performance of its inquisitorial powers.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1967, 1410)

††††† NRS 172.215  Certified court reporter: Appointment; compensation; material required for and prohibited from inclusion in notes.

††††† 1.  Whenever criminal causes are being investigated by the grand jury, it shall appoint a certified court reporter. If the certified court reporter is not an official reporter of the district court, the certified court reporter shall, before entering upon his or her duties, take and subscribe the constitutional oath of office. The certified court reporter is entitled to receive the same compensation for services as an official reporter of the district court.

††††† 2.  Except as otherwise provided in subsection 3, the certified court reporter shall include in the notes taken of a grand jury proceeding all criminal matters which come before the grand jury including:

††††† (a) The charge by the impaneling judge;

††††† (b) Any subsequent instructions or statements made by the judge;

††††† (c) Each statement made by the district attorney;

††††† (d) Each question asked of and response given by the witnesses who appear before the grand jury; and

††††† (e) Any statements made by the grand jurors during the proceeding.

††††† 3.  The certified court reporter shall not include in his or her notes:

††††† (a) Any confidential communication between a witness and the witnessís legal counsel, if the legal counsel is allowed to accompany the witness before the grand jury; or

††††† (b) The deliberations and voting of the grand jury.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1967, 1410; A 1973, 1323; 1985, 1029; 1993, 1411)

††††† NRS 172.225  Transcripts: Preparation; public record.

††††† 1.  If an indictment has been found or accusation presented against a defendant, the stenographic reporter shall certify and file with the county clerk an original transcription of his or her notes and a copy thereof and as many additional copies as there are defendants.

††††† 2.  The reporter shall complete the certification and filing within 10 days after the indictment has been found or the accusation presented unless the court for good cause makes an order extending the time.

††††† 3.  The county clerk shall:

††††† (a) Deliver a copy of the transcript so filed with the county clerk to the district attorney immediately upon receipt thereof;

††††† (b) Retain one copy for use only by judges in proceedings relating to the indictment or accusation; and

††††† (c) Deliver a copy of the transcript to each defendant who is in custody or has given bail or to the defendantís attorney.

††††† 4.  Any defendant to whom a copy has not been delivered is entitled upon motion to a continuance of the defendantís arraignment until a date 10 days after the defendant actually receives a copy.

††††† 5.  If several criminal charges against a defendant are investigated on one investigation and thereafter separate indictments are returned or accusations presented upon the several charges, the delivery to the defendant or his or her attorney of one copy of the transcript of the investigation is a compliance with this section as to all of the indictments or accusations.

††††† 6.  Upon the filing of such a transcript with the county clerk, the transcript and any related physical evidence exhibited to the grand jury become a matter of public record unless the court:

††††† (a) Orders that the presentment or indictment remain secret until the defendant is in custody or has been given bail; or

††††† (b) Upon motion, orders the transcript and evidence to remain secret until further order of the court.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1967, 1410; A 1975, 910; 1983, 359)

††††† NRS 172.235  Who may be present when grand jury is in session.

††††† 1.  Except as otherwise provided in subsection 2, the following persons may be present while the grand jury is in session:

††††† (a) The district attorney;

††††† (b) A witness who is testifying;

††††† (c) An attorney who is accompanying a witness pursuant to NRS 172.239;

††††† (d) Any interpreter who is needed;

††††† (e) The certified court reporter who is taking stenographic notes of the proceeding;

††††† (f) Any person who is engaged by the grand jury pursuant to NRS 172.205; and

††††† (g) Any other person requested by the grand jury to be present.

††††† 2.  No person other than the jurors may be present while the grand jury is deliberating or voting.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1967, 1410; A 1985, 555; 1993, 1412)

††††† NRS 172.239  Legal counsel for certain persons who appear before grand jury.

††††† 1.  A person whose indictment the district attorney intends to seek or the grand jury on its own motion intends to return may be accompanied by legal counsel during any appearance before the grand jury.

††††† 2.  The legal counsel who accompanies a person pursuant to subsection 1 may advise his or her client but shall not:

††††† (a) Address directly the members of the grand jury;

††††† (b) Speak in such a manner as to be heard by the members of the grand jury; or

††††† (c) In any other way participate in the proceedings of the grand jury.

††††† 3.  The court or the foreman of the grand jury may have the legal counsel removed if the legal counsel violates any of the provisions of subsection 2 or in any other way disrupts the proceedings of the grand jury.

††††† 4.  The district attorney or the foreman of the grand jury shall give a person entitled to legal counsel notice of the provisions of this section at the time the person is served with a subpoena to appear before the grand jury. If such a person is invited without process to appear, the grand jury shall include with the invitation notice of the provisions of this section.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1985, 554)

††††† NRS 172.241  Right of certain persons to appear before grand jury; notice of consideration of indictment; withholding of notice.

††††† 1.  A person whose indictment the district attorney intends to seek or the grand jury on its own motion intends to return, but who has not been subpoenaed to appear before the grand jury, may testify before the grand jury if the person requests to do so and executes a valid waiver in writing of the personís constitutional privilege against self-incrimination.

††††† 2.  A district attorney or a peace officer shall serve reasonable notice upon a person whose indictment is being considered by a grand jury unless the court determines that adequate cause exists to withhold notice. The notice is adequate if it:

††††† (a) Is given to the person, the personís attorney of record or an attorney who claims to represent the person and gives the person not less than 5 judicial days to submit a request to testify to the district attorney; and

††††† (b) Advises the person that the person may testify before the grand jury only if the person submits a written request to the district attorney and includes an address where the district attorney may send a notice of the date, time and place of the scheduled proceeding of the grand jury.

††††† 3.  The district attorney may apply to the court for a determination that adequate cause exists to withhold notice if the district attorney:

††††† (a) Determines that the notice may result in the flight of the person whose indictment is being considered, on the basis of:

†††††††††††† (1) A previous failure of the person to appear in matters arising out of the subject matter of the proposed indictment;

†††††††††††† (2) The fact that the person is a fugitive from justice arising from charges in another jurisdiction;

†††††††††††† (3) Outstanding local warrants pending against the person; or

†††††††††††† (4) Any other objective factor;

††††† (b) Determines that the notice may endanger the life or property of other persons; or

††††† (c) Is unable, after reasonable diligence, to notify the person.

††††† 4.  If a district attorney applies to the court for a determination that adequate cause exists to withhold notice, the court shall hold a closed hearing on the matter. Upon a finding of adequate cause, the court may order that no notice be given.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1985, 554; A 1991, 1063; 1997, 188)

††††† NRS 172.245  Secrecy of proceedings of grand jury; permitted disclosures; penalty.

††††† 1.  The disclosure of:

††††† (a) Evidence presented to the grand jury;

††††† (b) Information obtained by the grand jury;

††††† (c) The results of an investigation made by the grand jury; and

††††† (d) An event occurring or a statement made in the presence of the grand jury other than its deliberations and the vote of a juror,

  may be made to the district attorney for use in the performance of the district attorneyís duties.

††††† 2.  Except as otherwise provided in subsection 3, the Attorney General or a member of the Attorney Generalís staff, a grand juror, district attorney or member of the district attorneyís staff, peace officer, clerk, stenographer, interpreter, witness or other person invited or allowed to attend the proceedings of a grand jury shall not disclose:

††††† (a) Evidence presented to the grand jury;

††††† (b) An event occurring or a statement made in the presence of the grand jury;

††††† (c) Information obtained by the grand jury; or

††††† (d) The results of an investigation made by the grand jury.

††††† 3.  A person may disclose his or her knowledge concerning the proceedings of a grand jury:

††††† (a) When so directed by the court preliminary to or in connection with a judicial proceeding;

††††† (b) When permitted by the court at the request of the defendant upon a showing that grounds may exist for a motion to dismiss the presentment or indictment because of matters occurring before the grand jury;

††††† (c) If the person was a witness before the grand jury and is disclosing his or her knowledge of the proceedings to the personís own attorney; or

††††† (d) As provided in NRS 172.225.

††††† 4.  No obligation of secrecy may be imposed upon any person except in accordance with this section. The court may direct that a presentment or indictment be kept secret until the defendant is in custody or has been given bail, and the clerk shall seal the presentment or indictment. It is unlawful for any person to disclose the finding of the secret presentment or indictment except when necessary for the issuance and execution of a warrant or summons.

††††† 5.  A person who violates any of the provisions of this section is guilty of a gross misdemeanor and contempt of court.

††††† 6.  The Attorney General or district attorney shall investigate and prosecute a violation of this section.

††††† 7.  The grand jury shall inform each person who appears before the grand jury of the provisions of this section and the penalties for its violation.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1967, 1410; A 1985, 552)

††††† NRS 172.255  Finding and return of presentment or indictment; effect of failure to indict.

††††† 1.  A presentment or indictment may be found only upon the concurrence of 12 or more jurors.

††††† 2.  The jurors shall vote separately on each person and each count included in a presentment or indictment.

††††† 3.  The presentment or indictment must be returned by the grand jury to a judge in open court or, in the absence of the judge, to the clerk of the court in open court, who shall determine that 12 or more jurors concurred in finding a presentment or indictment. If the defendant has been held to answer and 12 jurors do not concur in finding a presentment or indictment, the foreman shall so report to the court in writing forthwith.

††††† 4.  The failure to indict does not prevent the same charge from being again submitted to a grand jury if resubmission is approved by the court.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1967, 1411; A 1971, 208; 1985, 1030)

††††† NRS 172.259  Publication of fact that no indictment was issued by grand jury.  After a grand jury investigation is concluded:

††††† 1.  A person who was the subject of the investigation but against whom an indictment was not returned; or

††††† 2.  A district attorney, with the permission of that person,

  may make public the fact that no indictment was issued as a result of the grand juryís investigation.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1985, 1028)

††††† NRS 172.265  Names of witnesses inserted or endorsed at foot of indictment.  When an indictment is found, the names of the witnesses examined before the grand jury shall be inserted at the foot of the indictment, or endorsed thereon before it is presented to the court.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1967, 1411)

††††† NRS 172.267  Report of grand jury: Scope; purpose; limitations.

††††† 1.  A grand jury may issue a report concerning a matter into which it may lawfully inquire.

††††† 2.  The report must be issued for the sole purpose of reporting on the matter. The report must not:

††††† (a) Contain material the sole effect of which is to ridicule or abuse a person or otherwise subject the person to public disgrace or embarrassment;

††††† (b) Contain material which is personal in nature and does not relate to any lawful inquiry; or

††††† (c) Accuse a named or unnamed person directly or by innuendo, imputation or otherwise of an act that, if true, constitutes an indictable offense unless the report is accompanied by a presentment or an indictment of the person for the offense mentioned in the report.

††††† 3.  The judge impaneling a grand jury shall include the provisions of this section in the judgeís charge to the grand jury.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1985, 700)

††††† NRS 172.269  Report of grand jury: Inclusion of recommendations to public officers or agencies; criticism must be constructive; positive statement of no indictable activity required, if applicable.  A grand jury may include in its report recommendations to a public officer or agency for actions which will reduce costs, increase efficiency or result in better service to the public. Any criticism made therein must be constructive and made in support of the recommendations. If such recommendations and criticism are included in a report and the report is not accompanied by a related indictment or presentment, the report must include a positive statement that no indictable criminal activity was found.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1985, 701)

††††† NRS 172.271  Report of grand jury: Preliminary review by court; notification of identified persons; procedure to expunge improper material; filing and distribution.

††††† 1.  The grand jury shall submit a draft of the report that it wishes to make to the court which impaneled it.

††††† 2.  The court shall review its contents and, if it contains any material which violates paragraph (a) of subsection 2 of NRS 172.267, require the grand jury to expunge that material from the draft.

††††† 3.  The court shall send to any person identified in the draft in violation of paragraph (b) of subsection 2 of NRS 172.267 the pertinent part of the draft and notify the person that the person has been identified in the draft of the report of the grand jury in connection with possible criminal conduct. The person may, within 5 days after receiving the notice and the portion of the draft, submit a written request to the court for a hearing in chambers to consider a motion to expunge that portion of the draft from the final report.

††††† 4.  The court shall rule on any such motion to expunge material within 20 days after the completion of the hearing on the motion.

††††† 5.  If the court determines that the draft:

††††† (a) Violates in its entirety a provision of NRS 172.267; or

††††† (b) After the removal of a portion pursuant to NRS 172.267, is so incomplete that it is meaningless,

  it shall not file the report with the clerk of the district court but shall file instead a written statement describing, generally, its action and the basis for it.

††††† 6.  The court shall file either the draft, the draft as corrected or the statement with the clerk of the district court within 60 days after receiving the draft from the grand jury. Upon filing, the draft becomes the final report of the grand jury.

††††† 7.  Within 5 days after the report is filed, the clerk shall mail a copy of the pertinent portion of the report to each person or governmental entity mentioned in the report.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1985, 701)

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

††††† NRS 172.275  Discharge of grand jury; discharge or excuse of juror.

††††† 1.  A grand jury shall serve until discharged by the court and may be so discharged at any time after the expiration of 1 year. At any time for cause shown the court may excuse a juror either temporarily or permanently, and in the latter event the court may impanel an alternate grand juror in place of the juror excused.

††††† 2.  Where the court is composed of more than one judge, any judge may discharge or excuse a juror; but if any other judge notifies the judge so acting, in writing within 24 hours after the action is taken, that the judge objects, the action stands rescinded and is not effective unless the concurrence of a majority of the judges composing the court is obtained.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1967, 1411; A 1985, 557)

††††† NRS 172.285  Warrant on presentment.

††††† 1.  If the court deems that the facts stated in a presentment constitute a public offense triable:

††††† (a) In the district court of the county, it shall direct the clerk to issue a warrant for the arrest of the defendant.

††††† (b) In another court of the county, it shall forward the presentment to such court.

††††† 2.  The clerk, or justice of the peace in a case forwarded to the justice of the peace, may accordingly at any time thereafter issue a warrant under the signature and seal of the court, if it has a seal.

††††† 3.  The magistrate before whom the defendant is brought shall proceed to examine the charge contained in the presentment and hold the defendant to answer such charge, or discharge the defendant, in the same manner as upon a warrant of arrest on complaint.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1967, 1411)

††††† NRS 172.295  Review by person of personís prior testimony before testifying before grand jury again.  A person who:

††††† 1.  Is called to testify before a grand jury; and

††††† 2.  Has testified regarding the same matter at another time before the same or another grand jury,

  may, upon request, review the transcript or recording of the personís prior testimony before testifying again.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1985, 1028)

††††† NRS 172.305  Failure to disclose subject of grand juryís inquiry to defendant not cause for dismissal of subsequent presentment or indictment.  A presentment or indictment may not be dismissed on the ground that the specific subject of the inquiry was not disclosed to the defendant pursuant to NRS 172.195 or subsection 5 of NRS 174.315.

††††† (Added to NRS by 1985, 572; A 1993, 118; 2013, 1202)